Many times I encounter Python modules that were written in C/C++ which when you use them you get to a really annoying problem. Integers that that module returns are all *unsigned*. That’s really a problem, because Python longs are (potentially) inifinite (they are digit-strings) AFAIK, unlike C/C++ integers that have a limit of, usually, 32 or 64 bits.

If you pass back -1 to Python and format it as unsigned long, you will get 2**32-1. Now suppose you really want to treat the number inside your Python code as signed integer, you will have to convert 2**32-1 to -1 somehow. Most solutions I saw to this problem was to use struct in the following manner:

import struct

struct.unpack(“l”, struct.pack(“>L”, 2**32-1))[0]

Packs an unsigned long value of 0xffffffff to (signed) long -1 (using little endian, but I don’t care now about it).

You might want to use unsigned long long – that’s 64 bits integers in order to convert a bigger number. So you can do one of two things, convert your 32 bits integer to 64 bits integer by sign extending (and that’s another whole challenge) it and stuff it into unpack/pack of 64 bits, or test the size of the integer (by how many bits it takes) and call the correct unpack/pack pair.

It was then that I realized why I shouldn’t use this ugly trick. It simply doesn’t support Python’s longs. As I said earlier they are infinite and using this trick you are capped to 64 bits. So I thought of a better way, and not using any stdlib module at all, leaving it pure Python code…

The way we know to change the signedness of an integer is by negating it, which is NOTing all bits of that number and incrementing it by 1, right? (2’s complement) Well true and that should work:

(Say we work with 8 bits integers)

0xfb = -5

>>> ~0xfb

-252

>>> ~0xfb+1

-251

>>> 256-251

5

>>> 0-5

-5

The way it works is: -(256 + (~x+1)) where x is a byte. For every integer we need to scan for its most significant bit… We can do it the other way around with the following formula (x – NEXT_MSB(x)):

>>> 0xfb – 0x100

-5

This way it’s like we changed the sign bit of the integer and fixed the number as well. Both formulas can work for all integers’ sizes. But the key here is to find the MSB. I prefered to stick to the latter formula rather than the former, since it seems to be shorter. But it doesn’t really matter, both work.

So now we have to code it, and as you should know me already – in one-liner device! The first challenge is to find the MSB, something like this should suffice in C(!):

for (int i = 7; i >= 0; i–)

if (x & (1 << i)) break;

This will work for a byte integer, and note that we must start from the *end* towards the *start*. Otherwise we won’t find the MSB but the LSB. The problem in Python is that we don’t know the size of the longs we mess with and we need to come up with a trick to find its MSB.

The lame trick I used for converting a number into decimal ASCII string, will be used here too and it goes like this:

for i in xrange(2**32):

if (i / (1 << i)):

break

We try to divide the input number by 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, … and when the result is 0, we know that we are out of bits. I said it’s lame because we use division, which is slow. If you got any other idea write to me please.

Another drawback is the limit of the numbers we scan, we are limited to 2**32, this is huge enough and I guess you will never reach that, or I will be dead first prolly :o. Using Erez’s trick (see here), we can make it a bit more elegant and stop as soon as the MSB was found.

I am not sure whether you noticed, but supplying an input of a negative number isn’t a smart move, we will have to check for it specifically. Eventually this is the code I came up with:

(Note that the input “bits-stream” can be any size)

def signed(n):

return n if n < 0 else n – [i for i in (2**j if n/(2**(j-1)) else iter(()).next() for j in xrange(2**31-1))][-1]

>>> signed(0xb)

-5

>>> signed(0xfb)

-5

>>> signed(0xffffb)

-5

>>> signed(0xffffffffffffffffffffffffb)

-5L

GZ-LN

That was useful advice. I was running the same problem using Python also and never knew that their long is essentially infinite.

You’re a crazy mad intelligentsia type, and your solution was awesome. IDAPython was returning 64-bit longs as positive numbers, -8 was being rendered as 0xfffffffffffffff8L. Crazy PythonC interface programmers, right?

So, I change your “n < 0" check to "n<1<<63" and now it's perfect. (I removed those silly spaces, they just aided readability, what a crazy idea… as if anybody will ever read it!)

def signed(n):

return n if n <1<<63 else n – [i for i in (2**j if n/(2**(j-1)) else iter(()).next() for j in xrange(2**31-1))][-1]

Thanks, saved me a lot of time. fare well.